Wednesday, May 13, 2009
1. Batasan masalah
Batasan masalah diperlukan agar kita dalam melakukan penilaian, tepat pada sasaran, Tidak memunculkan hal-hal yang tidak perlu dikerjakan yang mengakibatkan bias yang sangat tinggi pada nilai asset. Batasan masalah ini diantaranya adalah :
- Perlunya Indentifikasi property sebelum melakukan survey
- mengumpulkan data umum serta data khusus
- Mengidentifikasi status
- Menentukan tanggal pada saat melakukan penilaian
- Menentukan tujuan dari penilaian yang akan dilakukan
- Batasan nilai
2. Survey & rencana Penilaian
- Data yang diperlukan
- Sumber data
- Kebutuhan tenaga kerja
- Rencana kerja
3. Pengumpulan dan analisa
4. Penerapan 3 pendekatan
5. Perpaduan nilai
6. Kesimpulan nilai/nilai akhir
Pengumpulan dan proses penilaian
Data adalah sesuatu yang diketahui dan dianggap benar, dengan demikian, maka data properti dapat memberikan gambaran tentang properti yang lain. Data ini dapat berupa data tanah atau bangunan. Data tanah misalnya berkaitan dengan luas tanah, keadaan tanah letak tanah, harga tanah permeter persegi dan keadaan lainnya. Data bangunan berkaitan dengan luas bangunan, konstruksi bangunan, jenis finishing yang ada, biaya membangun, terutama untuk bangunan baru dan lainya.
Jika dikaitkan dengan masalah properti, maka data dapat digunakan sebagai :
Dasar untuk menentukan nilai pasar
Dasar untuk perhitungan bermacam-macam methode penilaian
Dasar untuk menentukan peramalan dimasa yang akan datang
Syarat data properti yang baik
1. Harus obyektif
2. Mewakili kondisi dari properti yang dinilai
3. Kesalahan baku dari data harus kecil/standar error hrs kecil
4. Data baru (up to date)
5. Harus relevan
Governing authorities and professional organizations
Appraisal practice in the US is regulated by the various states. The Financial Institutions Reform and Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) of 1989 demanded all the states to develop systems for licensing and certifying real estate appraisers. To accomplish this, the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) was formed, with representatives from the various Federal mortgage regulatory agencies. Thus, currently all the real estate appraisers must be state-licensed and certified. But prior to the 1990s, there were no commonly accepted standards either for appraisal quality or for appraiser licensure. In the 1980s, an ad-hoc committee representing various appraisal professional organizations in the U.S. and Canada met to codify the best practices into what became known as the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP). The Savings and Loan Crisis in the U.S. resulted in increased Federal regulation of the mortgage lending process via the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1991. A portion of this act required federal lending regulators to adopt appraisal standards. A not-for-profit organization, the Appraisal Foundation (TAF), was formed by the same organizations which had developed USPAP, and the copyright for USPAP was signed over to TAF. Federal oversight of TAF is provided by the Appraisal Subcommittee, made up of representatives of various Federal lending regulators. TAF carries out its work through two boards: the Appraisal Standards Board promulgates and updates USPAP; the Appraisal Qualifications Board (AQB) promulgates minimum recommended standards for appraiser certification and licensure. During the 1990s, all of the states adopted USPAP as the governing standards within their states and developed licensure standards which met or exceeded the recommendations of TAF. Also, the various state and federal courts have adopted USPAP for real estate litigation and all of the federally lending regulators adopt USPAP for mortgage finance appraisal.
In addition, there are professional appraisal organizations, organized as private not-for-profits, which date to the Great Depression of the 1930s. One of the oldest in the U.S. is the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers (ASFMRA), founded in 1929. Others were founded as needed and opportunity arose in specialized fields, such as the Appraisal Institute (AI) and the American Society of Appraisers (ASA) founded in the 1930s, the International Right of Way Association and the National Association of Realtors which were founded after World War II. These organizations all existed to establish and enforce standards, but their influence has waned as the government increases appraisal regulation. In March 2007, three of these organizations (ASFMRA, ASA, and AI) announced an agreement in principle to merge. NAIFA (National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers), a charter member of The Appraisal Foundation, helped to write Title XI, the Real Estate Appraisal Reform Amendments. It was founded in 1961.
The best known professional organization of real estate appraisers in America is the Appraisal Institute. It was formed in from the merger of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers and the Society of Real Estate Appraisers. Founded along with others in the 1930s, the two organizations merged in the 1990s to form the Appraisal Institute (AI). This group awards two professional designations: SRA, to residential appraisers, and MAI, to commercial appraisers. The Institute has enacted rigorous regulations regarding to the use and display of these designations. For example, contrary to popular belief, "MAI" does not stand for "Member, Appraisal Institute". According to the institute, the letters "do not represent specific words", and an MAI may not use the words "Member, Appraisal Institute" in lieu of the MAI mark. The primary motive for this rule is to prevent dilution of the trademark.
Other leading appraisal organizations include the American Society of Appraisers, National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers, and the National Association of Master Appraisers, which were also founding sponsor-members of the Appraisal Foundation. The Massachusetts Board of Real Estate Appraisers (MBREA), founded in 1934, is the only state appraisal association that has been named a sponsor of the Appraisal Foundation.  In recent years, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) has become highly regarded in the US, and has formed a collaboration with the Counselors of Real Estate, a division of the National Association of Realtors. RICS, which is headquartered in London, operates on a global scale and awards the designations MRICS and FRICS to Members and Fellows of RICS. The Real Estate Counseling Group of America is a small group of the top appraisers and real estate analysts in the US who collectively have authored a disproportionately large body of appraisal methodology.
Labels: teori penilaian