Thursday, February 12, 2009
Penilaian aset sangat dibutuhkan, ketika nasabah suatu bank mengalami pailit dan asetnya menjadi jaminan / agunan bank. Disini nilai yang dikeluarkan seorang penilai akan menjadi dasar pihak bank untuk melakukan penyitaan sekaligus pelelangan. Semisal aset yang menjadi jaminan bank yang akan dilelang, adalah gedung perkantoran - bentuk property merupakan 1 bangunan utuh, tentunya penilaian akan memunculkan satu nilai saja yaitu nilai pasar. Akan tetapi apabila seorang developer mengalami pailit atas usahanya, sedangkan aset yang menjadi jaminan adalah suatu perumahan dengan jumlah unit rumah yang cukup banyak. Apakah hanya muncul 1 nilai saja?
Pertimbangan nilai yang dimunculkan atas jumlah kavling yang dimunculkan adalah :
- Aset tersebut akan dilelang/dijual dengan total seluruh kavling yang ada / ”borongan”
- Aset tersebut dijual dengan bentuk satuan/ ”eceran”
Tentu seseorang buyer akan membeli unit kavling dengan jumlah banyak cenderung lebih murah dibanding pembelian seseorang dengan jumlah per-satuan unit kavling. Apabila ini terjadi, padahal nilai yang dibutuhkan adalah nilai pasar, maka akan muncul 2 nilai pasar untuk 1 laporan ? nah bagaimana...?
Governing authorities and professional organizations
In Germany, real estate appraisal is known as real estate valuation (Immobilienbewertung). Real estate appraisers (Immobilienbewerter or Gutachter) can qualify to become a Öffentlich bestellter und vereidigter Sachverständiger (officially appointed and sworn expert). However, this formerly very important title has lost a lot of its importance over the past years, but still is of some value in court procedures. The title is not generally required for appraisals.
The real estate appraisal practice in Germany is partly codified by law. The federal Baugesetzbuch (abbr. BauGB, "German statutory code on building and construction'") contains guidelines on governing authorities, defines the term market value and refers to continuative rules (chapter 3, articles 192 ff.). Each municipality (city or administrative district) has to form a Gutachterausschuss (appraisal committee), consisting of a chairman and honorary members . The committee gathers information on all real estate deals (it is mandatory to send a copy of each notarial purchase contract to the Gutachterausschuss) and includes it in the Kaufpreissammlung (purchase price database). Most committees publish an official real estate market report every two years, in which besides other information on comparables the land value is determined. The committees also perform appraisals on behalf of public authorities.
The BauGB defines the Verkehrswert or Marktwert (market value, both terms with identical meaning) as follows: "The market value is determined by the price that can be realised at the date of valuation, in an arm's length transaction, with due regard to the legal situation and the effective characteristics, the nature and lay of the premises or any other subject of the valuation"  (non-official translation). The intention, as in other countries, is to include all objective influences and to exclude all influences resulting from the subjective circumstances of the involved parties.
This federal law is supported by the Wertermittlungsverordnung (abbr. WertV, "regulation on the determination of value") . The WertV defines the codified valuation approaches and the general valuation technique. German codified valuation approaches (other apporaches such as DCF or residual approach are also permitted, but not codified) are the:
• Vergleichswertverfahren (sales comparison approach) - used where good evidence of previous sales is available and for owner-occupied assets, especially condominiums and single-family houses;
• Ertragswertverfahren (German income approach) - standard procedure for property that produces future cash flows from the letting of the property;
• Sachwertverfahren (German cost approach) - used for specialised property where none of the above approaches applies, e. g. public buildings.
WertV's general regulations are further supported by the Wertermittlungsrichtlinie (abbr. WertR, "directive on the determination of value") . The WertR provides templates for calculations, tables (e. g. economic depreciation) and guidelines for the consideration of different influences. WertV and WertR are not binding for appraisals for nonofficial use, nonetheless they should be regarded as best practice or Generally Accepted (German) Valuation Practice (GAVP).
Comments on German GAVP
In most regards Generally Accepted (German) Valuation Principles is consistent with international practice. The investment market weighs the income approach most heavily. However, there are some important differences:
• Land and improvements are treated separately. German GAVP assumes that the land can be used indefinitely, but the buildings have a limited lifespan; This coincides with the balancing of the assets. The value of the land is determined by the sales comparison approach in both the income and cost approaches, using the data accumulated by the Gutachterausschuss which is then added to the building value.
• In order to account for the usage of the land, the net operating income is reduced by the Liegenschaftszins (interest paid to the land-owner by the owner of the building, i.e. ground rent). The Liegenschaftszins is the product of the land value and the Liegenschaftszinssatz (interest rate for land-use). The Liegenschaftszinssatz is the equivalent of the yield - with some important differences - and is also determined by the Gutachterausschuss.
• Unlike the All Risks Yield (ARY) in UK practice, the Liegenschaftszinssatz (abbr. LZ) does not include an allowance for default (not to be confused with structural vacancy), therefore this needs to be subtracted from gross operating income. As a result, the Liegenschaftszinssatz will usually be lower than the All Risks Yield.
• Based on the assumption that the economic life of the improvements is limited, the yield and remaining economic life determine the building value from the net operating income.
• It should also be observed that contracts in Germany generally prescribe that the landlord bears a higher portion of maintenance and operating costs than their counterparts in the US and UK.
Mathematically the distinction between land and improvements in the income approach will have no impact on the overall value when the remaining economic life is more than thirty years. For this reason it has become quite common to use the Vereinfachtes Ertragswertverfahren (simplified income approach), omitting the land value and the Liegenschaftszins. However, the separate treatment of land and buildings leads to more precise results for older buildings, especially for commercial buildings, which typically have a shorter economic life than residential buildings.
An advantage of the comparatively high degree of standardization practiced by professional appraisers, is the greater ability to check an appraisal for inconsistency, accuracy and transparency.
The Federal German Organisation of Appointed and Sworn Experts (Bundesverband Deutscher Sachverständiger und Fachgutachter, abbr. BDSF) is the main professional organisation encompassing the majority of licensed appraisers in Germany. In recent years, with the move towards a more global outlook in the valuation profession, the RICS has gained a foothold in Germany, somewhat at the expense of the BDSF.
With special focus on hypothecary value, in 1996, German banks with real estate financing activities formed the HypZert GmbH, an association for the certification of real estate valuers. A HypZert qualification is regarded as mandatory for their appraisers by many German banks.
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